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% Dispatching With “with” % python, with, web, ideas, #pinned % 2009-03-04

Since Python 2.5, we’ve had access to a new contstruct called the with-statement. Using them is as simple as implementing the context manager protocol for classes.

The with-statement makes it possible to factor our try/finally statements that are commonly used to clean up resources created temporarily. Suppose for example, you have a multi-threaded application that makes use of mutexes to guard shared information. As a general rule, once you lock and perform the update on the shared variable, you need to unlock. Failure to unlock can lead to horrible problems, such as starvation or some other inconsistent state.

And, what happens if an exception occurs before you unlock? Quite frankly, you’re out of luck unless you use try/finally to clean up regardless of what happens. It might look something like this:

lock.lock() try: # perform some action finally: lock.unlock()

This ensures that lock is unlocked after the action is performed.

Now, using the with-statement we get something more like:

with lock: # perform some action

The beauty is that we don’t have to worry about remembering to call unlock, or wrap it up in the try/finally block. It does it for us.

But, we’re not worried about locks here. We’re interested in using with for another purpose, dispatching based on a requested url.

URL Dispatching

In many web frameworks these days for Python, such as, resources are dispatched to based on a regular expression that gets matched against the REQUEST_URI environment variable. This is normally pretty powerful, but in the case of, the way this is specified is often a bit awkward. Take for instance:

import web urls = ( '/([a-zA-Z]*)', 'Hello' ) app = web.application(urls, globals()) class Hello: def GET(self, name): if not name: name = 'world' return "Hello,", name def POST(self, name): # name can still be in the url i = web.input(name='world') return "You posted your name! Hello,", if __name__ == '__main__':

which is a whole web application written in The awkwardness comes from the fact that the regular expression used for dispatch, is in no way connected to the resource itself. It’d be nice to use decorators for this so you could get something like:

@web.expose('/([a-zA-Z]*)') class Hello: ...

but Python didn’t get class decorators til Python 3.0, which many people aren’t using yet, the author included. And what’s the logic behind def GET(**self**, ...)? It’s required in Python, but is just extraneous when defining a resource for

What if we implemented the context manager protocol in the object returned by web.application() above that looked like this (or something similiar):

import inspect --snip-- def __enter__(self): return self def __exit__(self, *args): frame = inspect.currentframe() get = frame.f_back.f_locals.get('get', None) post = frame.f_back.f_locals.get('post', None) resource = {} if get: resource['get'] = get if post: resource['post'] = post if not (post or get): raise ValueError("with must have a get or post function") self._resources.append((re.compile(self._last_url), resource)) if get: del frame.f_back.f_locals['get'] if post: del frame.f_back.f_locals['post'] def expose(self, url): self._last_url = url return self ...

Then, the simple hello application instead looks like:

import web app = web.application() with app.expose('/([a-zA-Z]*)'): def get(name): if not name: name = 'world' return "Hello,", name def post(name): i = web.input(name='world') return "You posted your name! Hello,", if __name__ == '__main__':

It’s declarative, simple, and eliminates a lot of noise, but we no longer get the packaging, or the ability to easily seperate our resources into multiple files. But, for one file web apps, maybe it’s useful.